Pulsed laser ablation of wire-shaped target in a thin water jet: effects ...

Apr 4, 2017 ... Hence, in this work we focus our attention on the phenomena occurring when a flowing water jet enwrapping a wire-shaped target configuration is used for PLAL. The main aim is therefore to clarify which are the effects induced, in these circumstances, by the plasma and the cavitation bubble dynamics.

Bubble formation in a planar water–air–water jet: Effects of the ...

The present study describes the influence of the nozzle geometry and the injection conditions on the dynamics of a planar water–air–water jet discharging into stagnant air. An exhaustive numerical study, previously validated with experimental results, has been conducted to assess the effects of the air injector wall thickness...

Bubble characteristics of air–water bubbly jets in crossflow ...

The distribution of bubble diameter was found to be affected primarily by air and water injection rates and the distance from the nozzle. At a cross-section, the gas-phase exhibits an ellipse-shape for pure air injection, while a kidney-shape for a mixture of air–water injection. Bubble properties along the gas-phase centerlines...

Air entrapment and air bubble dispersion at two ... - Semantic Scholar

In air—water shear layers, the velocity distributions have the same shape as in monophase flows but the characteristic ... receiving water (Fig. 1) and a large number of air bubbles may be advected within the turbulent devel- oping shear flow. At a plunging jet, the near-flow field. (next to and downstream of the impingement...

Noise Generation by Air Bubbles in Water - Bureau of Reclamation

Bubble shape as a function of time. 10. Peak sound pressure as a function of bubble. 11 size ... quiescent water, and. (2) noise generated due to air bubbles splitting in the shear layer of a turbulent water jet. The main body of this thesis deals with experiments carried out in these two areas. Noise measurements along with...

Bubble size distribution resulting from the breakup of an air cavity ...

We investigated experimentally the shape of the final size PDF(D) PDF (D) resulting from the breakup of an air bubble injected into the fully developed region of a high Reynolds number turbulent water jet. It is shown that the PDF(D̂) PDF (D̂) of the normalized bubble size D̂=D/D32, D̂=D/D 32 , where D32 D 32 is the...

An experimental study of air entrainment and oxygen transfer at a ...

This phenomenon affected the water jet expansion, water jet shape, air entrainment, and bubble penetration depth and, hence, the oxygen transfer efficiency. It was demonstrated that the air entrainment rate and the oxygen transfer efficiency of the circular nozzles with air holes were better than those of the circular nozzles...

Effects of Salinity on Bubble Cloud Characteristics - MDPI

Dec 29, 2017 ... The lateral shape of the bubble cloud does not change with increasing salinity; however, the lowest point of the cloud penetrates deeper as smaller bubbles are generated. Keywords: bubbles; bubble clouds; seawater salinity; surface tension; whitecaps; breaking waves; plunging water jet; air entrapment;...

Acoustic resonances in the bubble plume formed by a plunging ...

bubble plume resonances; plunging water jet; two-phase flow. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (2003) 459 ... A bubble plume formed by a plunging water jet provides a canonical system that may be easily produced and ..... the axially symmetric cone-like shape of the plume and its sharply delineated base. The remainder of the...

Size limits the formation of liquid jets during bubble bursting | Nature ...

Jun 21, 2011 ... The most important feature in the initial bursting process is a significant deformation of the bubble shape for small bubbles (R<100 μm). Before the bursting event (when t<0), the equilibrium shape of the bubble is spherical because of its small size (R≪the capillary length, for example, ∼2.7 mm for water).

Why Do I Keep Getting Bubbles In My Jets? - INYOPools.com

May 25, 2015 ... A stream of bubbles is a sign of the unwanted presence of air within our pool's plumbing system. This air is ... Bubbles streaming out of your return could be a result of low water levels in the skimmer. ... The need to empty the pump basket of debris is the number one cause of this o-ring getting out of shape.

Jet formation in bubbles bursting at a free surface - LMM

a dynamics with or without bubbles exist. For some parameter values, the jet formation is close to a singular flow, with a conical cavity shape and a large curvature or cusp at the bottom. This is compared to similar singularities investigated in other contexts such as Faraday waves. 1 Introduction. Bubbles bursting at the water...

Cavitation of a Water Jet in Water - BYU ScholarsArchive

Apr 18, 2012 ... bubble is not affected by the shape of the bubble; however, the oscillation frequency can be re- duced if the bubble is near a solid boundary [14]. Hutli and Nedeljkovic [15] have shown that the cavitation emitted from a submerged jet is periodic in nature. An axisymmetric cavitating jet pulses from the nozzle...

Jet drops from bursting bubbles: How gravity and ... - Boston University

Aug 17, 2015 ... value Boc ≈ 3, jet drops are not produced because of the influence of gravity on the equilibrium bubble shape and. *Corresponding author: [email protected] on the upward motion of the jet [27]. Thus, we expect air bubbles in water to produce jet droplets when the size (cap radius) is between R = 8 μm (Oh...

BUBBLE DYNAMICS UNDER AN IMPINGING PLANAR WATER JET ...

Jul 26, 2014 ... bubble dynamics under a planar water jet. ... 0.85 m/s jet. The jet was found to suppress nucleation close to the impinging zone and deform growing bubble from the spherical shaper. Away from stagnation, bubble diameter was found to ..... Bubbles in impinging region the bubble loses it spherical shape.

The sizes of the jet drops produced by air bubbles bursting on sea ...

There are no significant differences in the results between sea- and fresh-water. Except for the top drop, the size distributions are often bimodal. For the top jet drop, the dependence of the average droplet radius, Rd, on bubble radius, Rb, is given by the fit Rd = 0.0337 Rb1.208(μm) which compares well with the results for...

Nozzle-Free Liquid Microjetting via Homogeneous Bubble Nucleation

Apr 16, 2015 ... The carbon-nanotube lens can focus high-amplitude sound waves to a microspot of <100 μm near the air-water interface from the water side, leading to microbubbles in water and subsequent microjets into the air. Laser-flash shadowgraphy visualizes two consecutive jets closely correlated with bubble...

Liquid acrobatics: jets, droplets, bubbles, chaos - YouTube

Oct 10, 2008 ... James C. Bird and Howard A. Stone, "Liquid acrobatics." [arXiv:0810.1601] submitted to the Gallery of Fluid Motion in 2008. "We experiment with injecting a c...

BUBBLES? YES! BUT NO FOAM IN THE HOT TUB, PLEASE ...

In the hot tub, there are bubbles and there is foam. Big difference. Bubbles are made as water is mixed with air and sent through the jets with force by a jet pump. Bubbles help you relax and give a spirit of playfulness to your hot tub experience. Foam is the result of jet bubbles holding their shape after the jets are turned off.

Laboratory-generated primary marine aerosol via bubble-bursting ...

Feb 5, 2010 ... A bubble-bursting aerosol gen- erator which produces bubbles by water impingement was shown to best reproduce the oceanic bubble spectral shapes, which confirms previous findings. Two porous bubblers and a plunging-water jet system were tested as bubble-bursting aerosol generators for...

Air Tub vs. Whirlpool: What's the Difference? | QualityBath.com ...

Aug 17, 2009 ... A whirlpool's water jets come with the classic, high pressure, deep massaging jets that most people have come to associate with hydrotherapy. ... Water-soluble products are best and must be used in moderation; bubble bath may be used in small amounts (the jets will quickly whip up a mountain of bubbles...

How It Works - Jet Water Pipes

Bubble Amalgamation. During bubble formation via this type of percolator, the bubbles have a high tendency to combine (amalgamate) into larger bubbles due to the shape and orientation of the diffuser. So in this 5-slit diffuser scenario, rather than emitting 5 bubbles as one might think, it instead produces 1-3 bubbles.

Amazon.com: Conair BTS1D Water Jet Bath Spa: Health & Personal ...

Product Description. Water Jet Spa provides home hydrotherapy to relieve arthritis, back pain and neck pain and other conditions. This hydrotherapy product is a powerful, multi-directional water jet that circulates 21 gallons of water per minute and has a variable bubble and water jet control for individual setting. Water Jet...

Aerosol Generation by Bubble Collapse at Ocean Surfaces ...

Droplets result from fragmentation of film caps (filmdroplets) and the disintegration of water jets formedsubsequent to the bubble collapse (jet droplets).This release ... While surface areas ofsmall bubbles can be determined by an analyticalsolution of a simplified balance of forces, shapes oflarge non-spherical bubbles are...

Numerical and experimental studies of cavitation behavior in water ...

Keywords: Water-jet cavitation peening, numerical simulation, pressure-sensitive paper, impact wave pressure. 1. ... phenomena, including the growth and collapse of bubbles inside an injector nozzle, using a k-ω turbulence model. ..... (2) Different nozzle shapes can have a significant effect on the cavitation phenomenon.

surface tension - SCIPP

Figure 3 This apparatus, consisting of a C-shaped wire frame and a wire slider, can be used to measure the surface tension of a liquid. Table 1 Surface Tensions of Common Liquids. Liquid. Surface Tension γ (N/m). Benzene (20 °C). 0.029. Blood (37 °C). 0.058. Glycerin (20 °C). 0.063. Mercury (20 °C). 0.47. Water (20 °C).

Intex 120 Bubble Jets 4 Person Octagonal PureSpa - Walmart.com

Free 2-day shipping. Buy Intex 120 Bubble Jets 4 Person Octagonal PureSpa at Walmart.com. ... See our disclaimer. Pamper yourself in relaxing heated water surrounded by soothing bubble jets. ... Made with an innovative octagonal shape, this PureSpa will bring the look and feel of luxury to any space. The easy-to-use...

motion of bubbles and bubble characterstics - UCLA Engineering

smaller in the salt water aquariums. Another example are “white caps” in salt water and the absence of such foaming on freshwater lakes. 1.2 Bubble Shape. Bubble ... Bubbles are ellipsoidal in shape, motion is irregular, and velocity is independent of ..... For all subsurface systems (fine, coarse bubble, turbines, jets) C∞.

Air-entrainment characteristics in a plunging water jet system using ...

Jan 1, 2003 ... When a water jet impinges a pool of water at rest, air bubbles may be entrained and carried some way below the pool's free surface. This process is called air-entrainment or aeration by a plunging water jet. In this study, air-entrainment characteristics such as volumetric airflow rate, air-entrainment rate, and...

Waterjet cutting - Eiffelgres

Waterjet cutting of decors for floors and walls. The ornaments mounted on mesh in Eiffelgres' collections, such as Mosaico, Bubble, Egg, etc., are made with water jet cutting technology. This technology makes it possible to cut tiles down to very small sizes from a slab of porcelain stoneware, all identical and all shaped with...

Air entrapment by a falling water mass - Johns Hopkins Mechanical ...

Jan 12, 1995 ... the recording of the free-surface shape of the resulting crater with a high-speed camera. A bubble with .... as the original jet hit the undisturbed water surface. ... penetration of the secondary jet caused by pinch-off into the lower cavity surface. Another bubble will be formed by the impact of this secondary jet.

Bubble Jet - Tubs & Whirlpools - Clarion Bathware

Enjoy a fingertip massage from thousands of bubbles flowing to the surface of your tub. A new level of everyday luxury from Clarion Bathware. Our tubs feature 16 air jets that surround you with relaxing bubbles. To ensure long-lasting performance, each air jet has an individual check valve to ensure that water never gets...

Interaction of two differently sized oscillating bubbles ... - [email protected]

Dec 12, 2011 ... 1.30 ms (frame 6) restores the spherical shape of bubble 2. (frames 7 and 8) until bubble 2 collapses at t = 1.55 ms (frame. 9). The distortion on bubble 2 is expected to produce a high speed water jet that pierces through bubble 2 as observed in the catapult effect (as in Fig. 5). Frame 10, however, shows.

Bubble entrainment in vertical plunging jets

Dec 5, 2016 ... This paper presents a physical study of air bubble entrainment in supported two-dimensional plunging jet ... A water jet plunging into a pool of still water is a seminal self- aerated flow [1,2]. Air entrainment ..... and bubble count rate profiles exhibited a unimodal shape with a marked maximum, although the...

cavitating jet in air using multiple nozzes - WJTA

jet into low-speed water jet, which was injecting in air, using a concentric nozzle. In order ... Peening using cavitation impact at bubble collapse was named as ... nozzle consists of multiple nozzles for the high-speed water jet and a nozzle for the low-speed water jet. The cross sectional shape for the low-speed water jet was...

Turbulent bubble fountains | Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Cambridge ...

Dec 11, 2017 ... The bubbles have diameters of 2 to 5 mm and the fountains have source Froude numbers ranging from 10 to 240. The Reynolds numbers of the bubbly fountains range from 4000 to 24 000. The bubbles, carried into the tank by the downward jet of water, lead to a buoyancy force which reduces the...

Measuring bubble nucleation temperature on the surface of a rapidly ...

Measuring bubble nucleation temperature on the surface of a rapidly heated thermal ink-jet heater immersed in a pool of water. By C. T. Avedisian1, W. S. Osborne1†, F. D. McLeod2 and. C. M. Curley2‡. 1Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 2School of Electrical. Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca,...

Fixturing for abrasive waterjet cutting - OMAX Corporation

Nov 23, 2016 ... What many new waterjet operators are unaware of is that the jet drives a significant amount of air into the catcher tank that causes the water to bubble under the workpiece. That bubbling ... It mounts into the waterjet slat bed and is customized to fit your exact OMAX or MAXIEM machine dimensions. You can...

Scale dependence of bubble creation mechanisms in breaking waves

Smaller bubbles are created by jet and drop impact on the wave .... The air–water boundaries scatter light out of the plane of illumination and appear darker. a, Bubble formation before the cavity of air trapped between the overturning jet and the wave face ... An additional constraint is that the bubble undergo shape oscil-.

Surface Tension and Bubbles - HyperPhysics Concepts

Surface tension is responsible for the shape of liquid droplets. Although easily deformed, droplets of water tend to be pulled into a spherical shape by the cohesive forces of the surface layer. The spherical shape minimizes then necessary "wall tension" of the surface layer according to LaPlace's law. At left is a single early...

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